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Everything posted by whitenoise

  1. Two weeks later .... I was able to fix the crashes by using the asyncore module around the nfqueue. Internetspeed was significantly increased. I used that script on an old 2 GHz dualcore laptop with 1GB of RAM (but booted from an USB dongle) and got 26 MBits. Works like a charme! Next aspect I'm working on is IPv6. As far as I know, iptables does only work for IPv4 packets but not for IPv6. There is ip6tables which works analog to iptables for IPv6 packets. I'll see if I can send IPv6 traffic into the same nfqueue and write a distinction of cases in the callback function. Does anyone have some ideas about combining those versions via iptables and nfqueue?
  2. Can you please give us some more information? What is the output of "iwconfig" and are you able to enable monitor mode on your wifi device? Does another program block the device (maybe network-manager or so) ? Try: airmon-ng start wlan0 and see what happens. If airmon-ng creates a monitor interface for you, you can use that one for the injection test.
  3. Next update: I found a solution for handeling the crashes. Although I still don't know why it crashes I put the q.try_run() in a while loop like: try: x=0 while x==0: x=1 q.try_run() # Main loop x=0 Which basically restarts the try_run() function after every crash. Fortunatly there is no configuration or blocking problem when restarting the try_run() function. So the crashes are still there but everytime they appear, the function is restarted and at the other end of the connection you don't notice these drops. This might be a quick & dirty workaround but at least I get a stable connection. Here some speed results (testmy.net/dl-5000): normal connection: 26 mbps intercepted connection: 3 mbps I hope this helps ;) Thank you all!
  4. Here comes an update: I tried several setups. I mentioned above that it might be the delay-time of the packet stuck in the queue that may cause the crash but thats not the case. I added a time.sleep(1) and time.sleep(10) into the callback function and it didn't produce an error so there is no issue with the delay time. As I'm parsing packets with scapy I thought maybe there are 'evil' packets for scapys IP() function so I set up a callback function that does nothing but returns the packets back to the nfqueue via accept. That worked like a charme for a q.set_queue_maxlen(10) with a speed of several megabytes per second. As I increased the value to q.set_queue_maxlen(50000) it crashed again. I used the link testmy.net/dl-5000 suggested by i8igmac above. The crash appeard at around 7%. So what do I know from here? It is not a scapy issue and it is not a packet delay issue. It looks more like some kind of overflow and the queue seems to stumble or gets out of clock if it is flooded with too many packets. I'm still working on that one, further input is appreciated ;)
  5. @i8igmac: The problem actually seems to arise from the main()-function: def main(): q = nfqueue.queue() q.set_callback(callback) q.fast_open(0, AF_INET) # 0 is the index of queue q.set_queue_maxlen(3) q.set_mode(nfqueue.NFQNL_COPY_PACKET) try: q.try_run() # Main loop except KeyboardInterrupt: q.unbind(socket.AF_INET) q.close() sys.exit('...termination') You see "q.set_queue_maxlen(3)" is pretty low, this decreases the speed but the CPU is barely hitting the 100% on the pi. I can visit websites like example.com which are loaded in a second but if I switch over to a website with lots of content and pictures i.e. bbc.com it takes a while, BUT it does not crash. If I increase the value for set_queue_maxlen the scripts puts more packets into the queue and on websites like bbc.com there is a higher risk of crashing the script. Unfortunatlely there is no error message, it just flips out of the script back to command line and as the loop-through is broken then, the internet connection is, too. I'm using a Raspberry Pi B by the way, so not the hottest model. Maybe it is some driver issue, I don't know, but it seems to be something lowlevel. I read a bit about this problem and it seems to be that the packet accept delay is too high then. If you send a packet into the nfqueue it seems to be expected coming back in a certain amount of time, if this time is exceeded the script stops working. At least that is what I assume for the moment. I also read that one could analyze and the drop all packets by default but send a copy of each to a raw socket so there is no process that is waiting for the packets and you can choose by yourself how long you want to store the copied packet until you send it. Do you have any information about that? Alternatively one could code all the stuff in C which would run it faster but I'm not familiar with coding in C yet ;) @cooper: Yep, basically you're right but I was too lazy and wanted to have everything in one script ;) the right way would be to seperate the stuff.
  6. Here comes an update! I connected an USB-Ethernet adapter to my Raspberry resulting in having 2 ethernet ports. Now comes some configuration magic: def setupInterfaces(iface1, iface2): # I needed that one for the Raspberry, otherwise I got problems with nfqueue os.system("modprobe br_netfilter") # Setting up interfaces and creating a bridge os.system("ifconfig %s down" %(iface1)) os.system("ifconfig %s down" %(iface2)) os.system("brctl addbr br0") os.system("brctl addif br0 %s" %(iface1)) os.system("brctl addif br0 %s" %(iface2)) os.system("brctl setfd br0 0") os.system("brctl stp br0 off") # Put interfaces up in promiscious mode os.system("ifconfig %s promisc up" %(iface1)) os.system("ifconfig %s promisc up" %(iface2)) os.system("ifconfig br0 up promisc") # Reset iptables os.system("iptables -F") os.system("iptables -X") os.system("iptables -t nat -F") os.system("iptables -t nat -X") os.system("iptables -t mangle -F") os.system("iptables -t mangle -X") # Configure iptables os.system("iptables -P FORWARD ACCEPT") os.system("iptables -P OUTPUT DROP") os.system("iptables -P INPUT DROP") os.system("iptables -A FORWARD -i br0 -p tcp -j NFQUEUE") # Enable ip forwarding os.system('echo "1" | sudo tee /proc/sys/net/ipv4/ip_forward') return This is the Python code for setting up the interfaces and enable forwarding. From there it should be easy to pass the packets through a self programmed filter script based on nfqueue. With python and nfqueue you can filter and alter packets, dpi is also an option as long as the traffic is not encrypted. I should mention that using this script on a Raspberry Pi might result in a slow connection. I also read, that the network plug and the usb ports are using one single bus to the processor and as there is also a second ethernet device connected via usb this bus probably becomes the bottleneck. So it might be useful to switch to another system that has more RAM and CPU power, i.e. an Intel NUC. I did a traceroute through the device and it was completly invisible. I guess the only way to detect it might be via time period analysis as the packets need a little bit longer if the device is in between. Thanks for all the input, hope this helps ;)
  7. Thanks to both of you! I was actually thinking about the Throwing Star, too but I still think I can realize that with my setup described above. What I read so far is that one can bridge both ethernet adapters with brctl (from the bridge-utils package) in a bridge called bridge0, which you then can route through the nfqueue script. I will test this during the next days and see if it works. @barry: for just monitoring this is a nice solution, when I wrote passive I meant that I didn't want it to be discovered on the network, nevertheless it would be cool to activly filter and maybe alter the content of unencrypted traffic. For example I read about the pihole project, so I could easily introduce something similar for blocking ads or other stuff as well.
  8. Hey guys, is it possible to put a Raspberry Pi (having two ethernet ports) in the middle of a network connection monitoring all the traffic but without having an IP address assigned to the Pi? I want it to be there 100% invisible and passive, basicaly I only want to use the forward option in the ip tables and put a loop in between which sends all the packets via nfqueue through a python script which then is able to filter the packets at an optional level up to some kind of dpi. I'm not sure if I can prohibit it getting an IP assigned because I don't want it to be accessible. I guess I need some nice configuration for the /etc/network/interfaces file, the routing can be done with iptables at startup, which should not be a problem. All the other stuff with python and nfqueue also isn't the problem for me.
  9. Basically you are looking for packets. It's true that you will get a lot of noise because of reflecting signals but what you can try is a statistical analysis of the packets. I mean, the packets are sent with a maximum relative signal strength. In a complex environment you will get lots of packets with different relative signal strenght because of the reflections, although nothing is moving yet. Try to collect a certain amount of packets and then look at the highest relative signal strenght and calculate a mean value of them. In theory every reflection should decrease the signal strenght a little bit because of absorption. Finally it also depends on how precise you want to locate your target. At least that would be my approach.
  10. @cooper: I just found another solution ;) Dealing with such big numbers in the method above takes too much memory. However, the problem can be solved with a for-loop by what is called Modular Exponentiation. Python has a built-in function called pow(), which does modular exponentiation and can take up to three arguments (base, exponent and optional a modulo parameter). If you substitute: A=b**x % p by A=pow(b,x,p) A=67106303645408219781140727427280612111960487935201208302504831122113989347565507978724914118463849388439348417955712740781306188779036136994829742272005372145131781890427605537882 That's the way Diffie Hellman is calculated.
  11. Hey, I'm trying to code some crypto stuff. I don't just want to simulate an algorithm but want to use numbers that are used in practice. During the calculations of a Diffie Hellman key exchange some large numbers have to be processed. There is a prime number with >2048 bits and a base with an exponent, where the exponent should have a size of around 160-256 bits. At the moment I'm having problems with finding the right data types for this big numbers. If I just try to calculate something like (p is not a prime here): p=123456789123456789123456789123456789123456789123456789123456789123456789123456789123456789123456789123456789123456789123456789123456789123456789123456789123456789123456789123456789 b=2 x=987654321987654321987654321 A=b**x mod p Here for testing: #!/usr/bin/env python #-*- coding: utf-8 -*- p=123456789123456789123456789123456789123456789123456789123456789123456789123456789123456789123456789123456789123456789123456789123456789123456789123456789123456789123456789123456789 b=2 x=987654321987654321987654321 A=b**x % p print A I run into a memory problem (MemoryError). Converting the int's to long does not help, using Decimal() does not help either. I was trying to use the datatypes of numpy (see here) but I get OverflowError: Python int too large to convert to C long Has anyone experience in handling such big numbers and doing arithmetics with them in python? I mean .. DH key exchange is something my browser does a hundreds time a day and it never told me it is out of memory so I guess there has to be a trick ;) Cheers!
  12. I'm only interested in HTTPS not in HTTP. HTTP sessions are clear to me. It is all about how the encryption keys of a https connection are stored and referenced to the right connection. For me there has to be some kind of table somewhere looking like: ip:port <-> ip:port | key1 ip:port <-> ip:port | key2 ip:port <-> ip:port | key3 ... And each time a new https connection is established with all the client hello and server hello and so on after the negotiation the server and also the browser needs to add that connection to a table to refer encrypted content (incoming payloads) and unencrypted content (outgoing stuff) to a key that is used for the encryption/decryption so both partners speak the same language.
  13. Totally makes sense to me. It's still not clear to me how this finally is working :S Obscured internal processing? huh?
  14. @cooper: Thanks for this nice summary about TCP and HTTP layers working together. How these layers work is clear to me. I conclude that the tuple of src-ip, src-port, dst-ip and dst-port identify to a unique connection and therefore I would say HTTPS keys are stored together with this connection information. However the HTTPS port on most webservers is port 443 so the tabs inside a webbrowser can target the same https website but each outgoing connection uses another port so inside the browser this connection is tied to the keys and is distinct by the ip address of the user and in case of the tabs by the portnumbers. Thanks to both of you for clearing this up to me.
  15. @digininja: Okay, TCP means we have a source-ip, source-port, destination-ip, destination-port, then there are ack-numbers and sequence-numbers for all the data and a bunch of flags (+checksum). However there is not really a session ID in the TCP segment of the packets. There has to be something distinct. So would you say the keys are bound to processes running on the server? Are all TCP connections followed after the TLS handshake (which also includes a TCP segment) kind a child-connections from that TLS handshake TCP connection?
  16. @digininja: Exactly, the part where cookies and different accounts come into play is 100% clear. It is also clear that the http layer is encapsulated in the encryption layer. Once everything is decrypted the http header contains all the session information for the website. But still, how is the encryption layer handeling sessions? Multiple tabs seem to result in multiple sessions, also session IDs are negotiated after the TLS handshake. What I don't understand yet is how the server distinguishes between all the sessions comming from the different tabs as there is no TLS session ID in the encrypted packets. For me it would be rational to have a TLS header with a session ID so the server can match it with the negotiated key to decrypt/encrypt the payload. I'm quite sure the server does not bruteforce the payload with all its known keys and see if one works ;)
  17. Hey, does anyone know how this is handeled? Let's say i.e. I have two accounts for google. I connect to google and there will be a TLS handshake, I log in and everything is fine. Now I open another tab with google and log into my second account. I know that the accounts are distinguished by the cookie and the session ID but what is with the HTTPS encryption? In both tabs will there be the same key for encryption? And if not - how does the server/browser know which key to use? Is there such a thing like a TLS session ID ? Thanks for your input! //Update: I just did some wireshark research on that. First of all there is a session ID for TLS, it is set after the handshake, so there is Client Hello Server Hello Certificate, Server Key Exchange Client Key Exchange and after this negotiation the session ticket is set. I recorded some packets with wireshark and loaded google multiple times in my browser. Basically each time the procedure is the same as described above. The session ticket always changes but the first 32 bytes seem to be the same every time. Maybe this is some kind of header information? I don't know yet. Nevertheless, after this, the traffic is encrypted and also the TLS session id seems to be encrypted because I cannot find it in the plain text part of the packet. Somehow strange. So the packet arrives at the server but where does the server know which i.e. AES key to use for decryption? I'm still a bit confused.
  18. Of course this idea is just some theoretical play-around. I'm not intending to test it, because as you said ... there are some bigger players involved here. My router (fritzbox) requires some credential information to establish the internet connection. I don't know yet if there is some authentication process with the provider. Maybe there is a way to include a MITM with wireshark between the router and my provider to see what actually is going on. It totally makes sense that the provider basically acts as a DHCP server and my router as a client. So the user gets connected and the provider is the gateway for other nets. Okay, how does the provider know that a packet is comming from a specific router/user? - probably by its assigned IP address. I would agree that probably any other packets arriving at the provider and not having a 'kind a registered' IP address will be dropped. However, if there is some process of association and dissociation of the router to the provider it should be possible - assumed you are physically in the same network - to spoof a packet comming from the router telling the DNS server "hey, I'm out!". If it is a challenge response system it probably is not possible to spoof anything here successful (at least without being a MITM). I was just wondering if I'm in the same network (again - theoretically) I have a chance to kick someone out. Maybe I'll try to catch some traffic of the association process and see what kind a magic is going on. Yes, the TCP handshake of course would fail in the situation with a spoofed ip. Sending TCP connection drops with random guessed sequence numbers ... yeah, sounds a bit like the wheel of fortune. Thanks for the input so far ;)
  19. That's kind a social engineering thing. People want to be connected and hate it to get disconnected while chatting for example. At least I'm quite sure most people I know get desperate and probably would have a look at their accesspoint list. Once they see the cloned open one it might be worth a try to connect and see if the connection can be re-established. The service accesspoint is the cloned fake accesspoint which basically leads the user to a dynamically generated phishing page. I would not say it works in 100% of all cases. Also this is more a way to attack private networks and not i.e. a network of a company. Yes the user would have to connect manually ... act of desperation ;)
  20. I'm not sure whether this is possible or not. When I plug the power cable into my home router it communicates to my internet provider and I get an IP. Once I disconnect it from power and reconnect it I get a new IP. So obviously there has to be some kind of arrangement between my provider and the router that looks like: router: "hey it's me [credentials], please give me a new IP" At the moment I have no idea how this exactly works, I guess it is some type of handshake. Still the question though, could it be possible, once I know the IP of my target, to send a spoofed packet to the provider telling that I want to re-connect and thus dropping the target from the line? Has anyone some information about that process? Thanks in advance ;)
  21. On Error Resume Next

  22. If you want to get the WiFi password you need another strategy. You could try the following attack (requires some programming skills): First setup a http server (i.e. apache) with php. Write a python script and include scapy. Check for beacon frames and gather their mac adresses. From the mac adress you can get the vendor. Now you have the mac, vendor and the network name. Now you can generate an index.php in your www directory. The index.php includes i.e. in the headline the name of the vendor. If you want to put very much effort into this you can generate that page from a bunch of router configuration sites so it looks not suspicious at all. Basically it is okay to present a white page with the vendor name in the title and popping up a javascript box saying that there are problems with the router and one should enter the password so it can be restarted. Clone the accesspoint (with slightly different mac) as an open network. If someone gets into the network they should be routed to the index.php (use dnsspoof). Run a deauth attack on the original accesspoint. Once the user recognizes he cannot connect to the original accesspoint he might try the service accesspoint provided from his router (which of course is yours and is fake). Maybe he won't be smart enough and enters the password there. A simple php formular will save the password on your machine. Theoretically you could scan periodically for the password file and as a response of growing size you can stop the deauth.
  23. Isn't it possible to just 'clone' the IP that is provided by the router over to the DHCP of the USB ethernet interface? Physically there are two connectors apart from each other .. let's say eth0 and eth1. Also some auto-mac-spoofing would be nice just to make it less suspicious. At least in a setup where the Turtle is a hidden object. If it is clear to any user that the Turtle is laying around there and is in fact an ethernet adapter it might be suspicious for experienced users to see 'oh wait, the adapter is from the same company as my router?' :D, anyway, by spoofing the MAC adress of the laptop one could trick mac filtering in the router ;) I like the idea of the project. Just for all the python programmers out there, you can do a lot of stuff here with NFQUEUE. A tool like URLSnarf is just a few lines of code in python/scapy. Even tools like Driftnet should run easily. A bit more complicated to program would be a script that actually replaces content of websites. In this case you have to collect all packets from a webserver after a GET request first, (maybe decompress the packets with zlib), merge all the code, replace what you want to replace, then create a temporary webserver (i.e. with simple HTTP server from python) and DNS spoof the original request to that page, there you go. Just some thoughts ;)
  24. I guess heating is not an option as the spray is kind a resistant to heat (as this is its job), but of course there would also be trouble with the wood. Yes there is cooper inside, the spray is even for increasing thermal conductivity. The main idea for the spray is greasing high temperature car parts like certain screws. I used this calculator here: http://www.pasternack.com/t-calculator-microstrip-ant.aspx and to get into the theory I tried to work me through chapter 14 "Microstrip Antennas" of "Antenna Theory Analysis and Design by Balanis". There is also an instruction for an exemplary design of a single patch antenna and of course a lot of optimization stuff, different designs and also about how to design an array from multiple patches. There are ways to get the ebook as pdf on the internet.
  25. Update: I tried to build a first version but so far without success. I had a wooden plate and fixed paper on it. I sketched a patch mask onto it and cut out the patches with a razor blade. I bought some cooper spray (500 ml around 7€) and sprayed it over the mask - until here everything worked nicely. Unfortunatly the cooper spray seems to contain some stuff (maybe silicon oil) that isolates the cooper particles from each other as I cannot confirm conductivity of the surface. Maybe I will repeat the experiment at some point of time.
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