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Everything posted by IDNeon

  1. What does get into the industry even mean to you? That's probably the right place to start. Help desk > systems/network admin > then security Gotta know how something works to secure it
  2. I'm pretty sure encrypted police radios will be deemed illegal soon enough. Police are not protected by national security acts that are the only thing that allows public property to be hidden from the public.
  3. Oh and the "novel" portion is the terminology. I thought I explained in the beginning of the thread that I was asking about verbage to explain what is generally discussed in seminars on findings about APTs and their operations. I tried to illustrate such an instance, where the lecturers about such an APT had described a network of compromise, but had failed to give it a name. And had described the futiluty of wiping the device discovered to be compromised because the rest of the compromised devices would restore whatever device they wanted to that network of compromise. The idea then was to box in that network so all suspected compromised decices could be wiped too. So the novel characteristic is to define this compromised network. And wipe it all based on reasonable assumption rather than actionable intelligence.
  4. That's all in another thread. And this was a spinoff of that more along the lines of testing the concept of "network of compromise". The main point here which I hope hasnt been lost is that I think it's possible to box in an attacker into a smaller and smaller box which provides you faster counter intel. What this thread is not intended to do is to explain a sure-proof means of preventing exploits by network segmentation alone. So this thread starts with some initial assumptions that including other technical controls will effectively compartmentalize a smaller and smaller group of endpoints and all networked devices into effectively segmented networks. So when compromise is detected within that network the entire network can be wiped and restored efficiently. If the idea of using the term "network of compromise" made sense. Then I am willing to discuss more about how to effectively box in an attacker into those networks. So they are more tightly restricted in lateral movement from where they first infiltrate. But such a scale of conversation will naturally lead to quite a lot of tangents because there's a lot of areas that need to be covered to really start to box in a persistent attacker. As you've noted.
  5. Unspoken truth for sure. A real world example was a network I recently had to walk in on because of how messed up it had gotten by a number of issues. And one of them was the onsite IT moved the wrong servers physically to ports assigned to the wrong vlans for those servers. Among other physical issues. Such as switch configuration inconsistencies and problems. Point being. Given how complex a working infrastructure can become. When I'm crafting this document the word "actionable" comes to mind. If you have to build a space shuttle chances are your clients won't be able to. But also actionable implies not just the useability for the end user and onsite admin. But the effectiveness of what can be implemented. Ideally I'll have this so much like legos that management can pick and choose what's most actionable for their needs while remaining effective and providing enough security to meet the expected risk.
  6. Disabling what you can for hardened OS per best practice to endpoints should always be a must. The general assumption is best practice technical controls will be applied. This more deals with what should the network look like (while security architecture deals with what should the whole IT infrastructure look like and why). It is apt to say this would be analog to wireless client isolation. But the reason is administrative. You want to be able to know what the attacker knows as soon as possible. It is not because such isolation is inherently more secure to exploit. That is not true. Does that make sense? Basically by subdividing endpoints. Instituting best practices. And controlling admin-credentials to better isolate the server core from things such as pass the hash....what you do by implementing this is give you better counter-intel allowing faster more defenitive response while actual intelligence gathering takes more time.
  7. Ok got a moment actually so to respond more to the other particulars of the above quote. The AP is a good analog where the server core should be the channel of communication between endpoints. Endpoints should not be able to communicate laterally outside of their allowed permissions to the server core.. Ideally the subnetting is for internal use to nuke these networks of compromise. The general assumption is the controls are effective. Thus you prevent lateral extension into the server core by other means alluded to in the "Security Architecture" thread. And you prevent lateral extension to other endpoints by proven subnetting/networking/and System Admin techniques. For instance you can get so granular that each user has an assigned workstation and can only log into that workstation by logon policy (system admin). Or you can create ACLs that allow traffic between endpointand server. But does not route to other endpoint subnets. (Network). Just as examples. These controls assume effectiveness (can be proven by investigation). And so compartmentalize the possible network of compromise so you can "nuke" it and replace the endpoints with clean images. Whether thru virtualization or thru sysprepped images or whatever your means of image deployment. Network of Compromise attempts to define what is reasonable to assume. So that your investigation is not the bottleneck to a likely definitive outcome (wiping all compromised machines). Investigating what is ACTUALLY compromised can be more time consuming. And should be given less criticality by this methodology. I guess it's a "shoot first ask questions later" approach where you "nuke" a whole subnet and then check to confirm no more activity can be detected outside that.
  8. I want to respond to you more in full but I am headed to a meeting so in brief first just soI remember to respond. The answer to your question lies in the nature of infiltration. It is harder to "land" on a server than to land on an end point and it is easier to "lock down" a server or other endpoints from lateral extension. It is extremely difficult to prevent endpoints from being "landing pads" or points of infiltration due to their use by lay-persons without security focus, and the latitude given them by your own policies which may or may not be enforced by rules or actual technical controls. Just because a policy exists that users will not use company property for web browsing doesn't mean they won't. And doesnt mean youve locked down webtraffic which is actually more difficult in practice than in theory especially with Windows10 almost mandating the existence of Edge and IE11 and some port 80 and 443 external traffic needing to be allowed for most businesses.
  9. Just curious but you have two independent wifi adapters for your host?
  10. Lol this gives me the strange idea. Can you use virustotal as your host since apparently they let you download content that's been uploaded?
  11. There's a question in there somewhere for anyone interested in discussing. This isn't really a thread about networking. The question is based on the assumptions of APT activity within a compromised network does the remediation logically address the issue such that the defender can say they have effectively wiped out the network of compromise such that an attacker has to essentially start over from scratch. I think the methodology is on the right track and believe that subnetting and disabling certain services, remote features, etc, will box in the attacker so that their lateral movement is hindered significantly. Also is "network of compromise" a reasonable and effective way of defining attacker activity such that it can be effectively targeted. Afterall language precedes action and if the activity is not accurately defined then the action to remediate it will be the wrong action.
  12. I can't go into explicit details but would like some feedback on a concept Im working on as part of the security architecture document Ive also created a thread about. The network of compromise represents all the compromised machines in your network. The idea is that if you wipe one compromised machine, the command and control within this network of compromise can recapture the wiped machine. If the command and control machine is wiped, then any other machine in the network of compromise can be promoted to a command and control device. Because the network of compromise may consist of different agents and back ends, you may find some compromised machines, wipe them, but leave others that were not known and then restore the network of compromise. The security architecture I'm currently researching to combat this functionality of the network of compromise are subnets and vlans. Ideally preventing any compromised machine from compromising other machines laterally. Assuming the network/server core which must be visible to all machines, has been secured by other means and won't be laterally compromised. If you can narrow how many machines can be visible latterally, ideally to one machine, then you can wipe all machines that are part of that subnetwork when one of those machines is foundto be compromised. Theoretically this would nuke the entire network of compromise. Doing this will preventthe network from being able to be restored and would return an APT to having to compromise a machine again through whatever other methods which are more difficult than relying upon a command and control and other back doors.
  13. Update: some areas of focus have emerged. The goal continues to compartmentalize authenticated users so that a compromise in one compartment does not compromise the other. This leads to the concept of the server compartment being the core, while the other compartment or compartments (note the multitude) is for the endpoints. The problems here to be addressed is what happens to the compartmentalization when IT employee Bob tries to login to a workstation with a server-admin credentials. Through various technical controls I've narrowed it down to as far as the authentication request is sent but not validated and no session key is returned. However, is this enough? From that compromised workstation the attacker now has half of the key. The authentication request. Can they pass this to another computer where server-admin is allowed a logon? Or is there specifics to each request that prevents this pass? Depending on that answer, compartmentalization may be achieved. As for another issue. Compromised endpoints may make-up a network of compromised devices with a command and control link. You may wipe one or several devices, even the current c&c, but as long as one compromised endpoint exists to take over as c&c then the attacker can continue to operate and expand in your network. To isolate this potential may require extreme subnetting. In a subnet with proper access control. Where each endpoint only communicates outside of that subnet through its core. Then it is possible to isolate this network of compromise to just that subnet. In which case you can wipe all the endpoints in the subnet to nuke any c&c that would restore the network-of-compromise. That concept is only starting to be developed but I think it's a step in the right direction.
  14. So I have begun building the outline for this comprehensive topic. The paper as im currently working on includes: Logical controls. Control mechanisms. Technical controls. These 3 things describe the intention of your controls (logical controls) the bridge between your intentions and how to achieve those intentions (control mechanisms) and the controls as actually applied in a system suchas GPOs. (Technical controls). Similar to programming, you have a problem, pseudo code to describe how to solve the problem and then the actual code that solves the problem. Logical controls, continually asks the question, does my technical controls meet the obejctive? And the logical control should be an effective objective. In the paper I begin to identify logical controls and attempt to briefly explain why they are effective, using citation to source material. For instance. Logical control - limit users to workstations only. Reason? Pass the hash and other lateral attack methods. Control mechanism - deny local logon, gpo controlling RDP, AD property logon computer. Technical Controls - these would be the exact procedure to implement (for instance) Deny/Allow local logon with the intended outcome (user cannot log into server locally, but admins can). This method can be expanded to all strategic objectives, described in this manner, then drilled down individually with citations for each methof and discussions how each method is effective.
  15. Something Im working on while desperately trying to avoid "reinventing the wheel" is Security Architecture. And what that entails is building a network so that all its components are secure. But not with the frame of mind that vulnerabilities are patched and best practices are implemented. But from the frame of mind that attacks work on certain strategic principles and to prevent those principles from ever being exploited in the first place. For instance in the most basic sense: an attacker controls a workstation and seeks privilege escalation or other credentials. In most networks this workstation might have an administrator profile that was once logged in. Theoretically an attacker could use the credentials of that account to access other parts of the network. Security Architecture attempts to implement compartmentalization completely, so that this is not the case. The problems I run into is effectiveness. For instance enforcing compliance so that the implementation cannot simply be bypassed. That's where my skill as a technical hacker is limited, and where I tend to do better with theoretical. If all good soldiers made good generals then all soldiers would be generals. That maxim simply illustrates that a strategist need not necessarily be a good tactician or technician. But it would greatly help for me to have some pool of talent who are technically competent to help see the areas they would attack, that I can integrate a proper implementation of a technical control to prevent the purpose of the explout from ever existing. The problem gets deeper and deeper as you explore each part. For instance if the goal is to isolate admin credentials so workstations compromised won't also compromise servers. But then you have to enforce policies that limit domain users from logging onto servers at all. If so then what servers? Because those users may need some servers to be accessible. Then how to prevent all sorts of other pathways of attack. What about hash passing? Man in the middle during remote logins? Basically the architecture would have to isolate each facet while keeping the intended purpose working properly. For instance if servers and workstations are on the same subnet then theoretically an attacker could packet capture and determine credentials or posion packets intended for servers. So part of the architecture must include proper subnetting for that reason. On that note, I'll leave it there for now. I have been drawing out a high level diagram to help me sort out the many parts. When it's complete I can possibly share it with the intention of drilling down deeper to each element.
  16. I'm just writing this as a general fun topic to enumerate all the facets of this gem, each person inputting whatever comes to mind. I do know there are defined stages of hacking and a more or less defined tool set, this isn't so much about that as it is about the philosophy of the whole matter. That is, how you approach the problem? I hope this would be more for a beginner to just come into this thread and read and get an idea of what to expect on their own journey. Nothing really fancy. I don't know what category I fall into anymore, I always consider myself a problem solver more than anything. And the most recent problem I had to solve was uninstalling an AV locked with password protection but unable to authenticate home and riddled with errors (missing folder structures, non-standard install paths, corrupted files). I did it...and that got me to thinking well what kind of hackers are there? Because it seems HAK5 seems to specialize mostly in the network CnC side of things, can you recon an environment and take control of a machine. That seems to be where most of the posts focus. And to be honest, I'd love to get more into that but have very little time involved in that. I find myself more often "reverse engineering" systems. Not even code, for instance in the above scenario I thought about using a debugger to examine the code of the program but in the end figured that was too involved for the task at hand. It was much easier to just follow the errors and rebuild the damaged product that way. I suppose there are the hackers which do reverse engineer code, I've only just started getting into debugging, but as I mentioned above, it seems debugging often is a little too overkill for reverse engineering a system. Systems often have warnings and errors and logs to tell you what's going on and you can determine a lot from fiddling or breaking those. So far that would seem there are two main branches: Network and Systems, and Coding which leads to the actual exploits. And tools like Metasploit to give a networker the leverage needed to exploit a system. So maybe instead of those categories, instead, there are two types of Hackers. The methodical, and the problem solver. They aren't mutually exclusive. Rather it's just the approach you may take, I can see a methodical person excelling at using the tool sets in Kali, have a system in place, going through check lists. But then there's always the problem solver which is the end goal anyway (whether the problem be a business related task, personal achievements, etc.) and that one just works on the solution like water flows down hill, going where the path takes and using the tools that come to mind for each situation. I often find myself with no method, but intuitively seeking out a solution, adding tools as necessary on the fly, and sometimes creating my own tools when needed. Like a program writes a function when needing a task completed.
  17. Or Mad-Eye Moody as being impersonated by Bartley Crouch Jr. "You have a wand".
  18. I don't know if I made a thread about this before, but this has always been a pet peeve of mine that I've never tested or built but kinda wish soooooommmmeonnneee else would (long lazy sigh). We all ought to know that Force Microscopy can be used to examine a disk at its atomic scale and basically rebuild data that has been overwritten. Therefore there's some debate as to how many "passes" are enough, and to whether or not degaussing is sufficient. And you can buy degaussers for such a purpose. I believe the evidence suggests degaussing is sufficient but we CAN GO FURTHER! I give to you the Induction Heater! https://youtu.be/VydPQuLyEns Behold! Aluminum being melted in about 1 minute. Imagine the FBI raiding your apt and you flip the switch and that puppy already installed around your external drives (or whatever set-up) turns on and just melts your harddrive. The first nano-second is going to blast the harddrive in a powerful alternating magnetic field anyway, but just to be sure. Ya know...melted slag in 1 minute tops. Hillary Clinton's Bleach Bit theoretically has nothing on this. In all seriousness though, induction heaters are easy to build, easier to buy, run on about 3kw, and will degauss AND physically destroy your harddrives at the same time. Not sure what its effect would be on a SSD other than that it would most certainly melt those too (if they are using any kind of metallic case). Induction heaters work on any metal as far as I am aware, magnetic properties of metals come from the ability to align all the magnetic fields in that metal, which non-magnetic metals are resistant to but are not themselves "without" magnetism. Induction heaters simply oscillate between polarities so that these fields are constantly shifting creating friction and thus heat. So would work on any substance that responds to magnetism, not just magnetic materials.
  19. He's probably finding walkthroughs for the specific virus that usually tells you which regkeys and files belong to that virus and just manually removes them. Windows Passwords are (off the top of my head) stored in a file as cyphertext, not plain text, you would have to be able to decrypt the file to examine the password. There's easier methods to breech passwords if you have access to the machine such as "Windows NT Offline Registry Editor" which will allow you to just remove a password associated with an account so you can reset it to something you know. Being a PC repair, I would think things like "Registry Editor" and some other goods like HiRens might be quite useful.
  20. This seems to be the most authoritative answer: wlan host 08:00:08:15:ca:fe While not exactly the channel you can narrow it down to the channel you want by selecting the APs in that band I suppose?
  21. I may have glossed over what you were getting at, been a busy day, and thought you were referring to the time frame in which that task could be performed.
  22. Well to clarify your statement a little bit. The only reason GPUs don't help for "OWA" is because of other limiting factors like how fast you send attempts at the OWA, etc. All of it still depends upon speed, it's just what's bottlenecking you and reduce that. I'm sure there's a laundry list of optimizations for OWA/firewall account cracking where accounts don't have lockout policies and etc.
  23. Not sure why no one has pointed this out but there's a whole market for this exact thing in the GPU industry which is why you find better performing GPUs for this task that are not as good for gaming. I am sure GPU manufacturers actually have a sales team devoted to explaining what's best for this.
  24. Good god buy a junk TV for 50 bucks, problem solved.
  25. I've noticed AV processes are fickle in when they can and cannot be killed, sometimes they feed on other processes and tampering one of those locks the process. Sometimes I've had no trouble in killing an AV process that governs the uinstall security of the AV (for instance) and then turn around on a different but very similar environment, exact same AV, same OS version, and can't kill the process or make any of the changes I just did to a similar machine with same OS version and exact same deployed AV. Sometimes it's various files locking them. The most success I've seen with AVs is to shotgun blast their .sys files and take out the processes the hard way. Editing regkeys as SYSTEM can help facilitate as well. This way I've been able to disable the security features of AVs and uninstall them even when password protected, etc, without having to have the password protecting them. If you do have system level credentials to that system you can take it out. PS not sure what NT_AUTHORITY higher than SYSTEM you're referring to? If you can uninstall them without a password prompt then you've pretty much disabled the last layer of that onion which is why I mentioned yes it's very do-able.
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